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History of the Scientific Research

The Museum was organized by the outstanding representatives of Russian science and culture: P.A. Florensky, Yu. A. Olsufyev, A.N. Svirin, T.N. Alexandrova-Dolnik, P.N. Kapterev, I.E. Bondarenko, N.M. Shchekotov, P.P. Muratov, etc. They formed the solid foundation for the scientific research. 

The registration of the collection was based on their investigations. The descriptions, catalogues, exhibition surveys, articles, reports, investigation, guidebooks, published in the 1920s with circulation from 100 to 500 copies, are bibliographic rarities, preserving their scientific significance. The thorough examination of the architectural monuments of the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra permitted to begin restoration 

Subsequently, the scientific research was supervised by the Scientific Council, established in 1939. At different periods its members were famous scientists: A.V. Artsikhovsky, I.E. Grabar, S.V. Bakhrushin, T.V. Nikolayeva, M.A. Ilyin, G.I. Vzdornov, M.A. Nekrasova, E. S. Smirnova, O.A. Belobrova, N.A. Mayasova, etc. 

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 Great contribution to the investigations was made by the scholars of the 1940s – 1950s: Yu.A. Lebedeva, N.A. Mayasova, T.V. Nikolayeva, I.I. Bureichenko, O.A. Belobrova, O.N. Esipova, O.V. Kruglova, L.E. Kalmykova, T.N. Kedrova, E.N. Klitina, L.N. Boikova.

Thanks to their efforts the Museum resumed publications presenting results of serious investigations of the Monastery history and the Monastery collections. The results of the research of the Lavra heritage were published in the comprehensive monograph “The Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra. Artistic Monuments” (M., 1968). 

 After a long break they published the fundamental catalogue “Proizvedeniya melkoi plastiki 13 – 17 vv. v sobranii muzeya”. T.V. Nikolayeva, Zagorsk, 1960. (Small-Size Sculptures of the 13th – 17th century in the Museum Collection). It is the most substantial work on this original Old Russian art. In the next period catalogues were the main task of the scientific investigation. They covered all parts of the collection and provided materials for published catalogues, albums, articles.


The 1970s introduced some interesting publications, recording acquisitions and research work of the previous decades. Among them there were albums and exhibition catalogues (Kalmykova L.E., “Russkoye narodnoye goncharstvo”. M., 1976 [“Russian Pottery”]); Kruglova O.V. “Russkiye pryalki”. M., 1971. [Russian Distaffs”]). 
One of the best publications was O.V. Kruglova’s book “Traditional Russian Carved and Painted Woodwork” (M., 1974), presenting the richest materials collected during her expeditions to the northern regions, where objects of everyday peasant life were real works of art.

At the next period there were published a number of serious catalogues of Tver embroidery (Kalmykova L.E. “Narodnaya Vyshivka Tverskoi zemli” (L., 1981) [“Folk Embroidery of the Tver Land”], Kalmykova L.E. “Tverskaya vyshivka v sobranii Zagorskogo muzeya. M., 1982. [Tver Embroidery in the Collection of the Zagorsk Museum]), folk art of the Penza Region (Zhiguleva V.M. Narodnoye iskusstvo penzenskoi oblasti. M. 1989. [Folk Art of the Penza Region.]), Dymkovo toys (Vodyaeva L.G. Dymkovskaya igrushka v sobranii Zagorskogo muzeya. M., 1981. [“Dymkovo Toy in the Collection of the Zagorsk Museum]). 


The catalogues of Kalmykova “Narodnoye goncharnoye iskusstvo XIX – nachala XX vv.”( M., 1976) [Folk Pottery of the 19th – early 20th century] and “Narodnoye goncharstvo Moskovskoi oblasti XIX – nachala XX vv.” (M., 1995) [The 19th – early 20th century Pottery of the Moscow Region], based on the expedition materials, gave valuable information about works of art, their function, craftsmen and centers of production. 

A lot of information of the Museum art collections was presented in the album “Chukotsko – eskimosskoe iskusstvo” (Fisinina A.K. L., 1981) [Chuckchee-Eskimo Art], “Narodnoye iskusstvo Tverskoi zemli” (Kalmykova L.E., 1981) [“Folk Art of the Tver Land”]. The collection of cotton kerchiefs is of great scientific interest. It was published in the catalogue “Russian Calico Kerchiefs of the 19th – Early 20th Century from the Collection of the State History and Art Museum-Reserve in Sergiev Posad” (Gorozhanina S.V., Zhiguleva V.M., Zaitseva L.M. M., 1994). 

The Museum specialists take part in many publishing projects. Recently, the  “Interbook-Business” publishing house released books  on folk and decorative art, prepared by the researchers of  the corresponding department. Among them, there is the album “Pavloposadskiye shali” [Pavlov Posad Shawls] (M., 2007) by N.V. Tolstukhina and T.A. Polosinova (in cooperation with the Joint Stock co. “The Pavlov Posad Kerchief Manufactory”), album-catalogue by N.V. Tolstukhina “Gorodetskaya rospis”  [Gorodets Painting] (M., 2008), S.V. Gorozhanina book “Russkaya matryoshka” [Russian Matryoshka] (M., 2012).

 Alongside with folk art, they studied the ancient collections. These collections were investigated by Nikolayeva T.V. and Mayasova N.A., who left the Museum in the 1960s. In 1977, they published the catalogue of Nikolayeva T.V. “Eearly Russian Painting in the Zagorsk Museum” (M., 1977), presenting more precise attribution of the icons.

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   It is still of great significance as it contains a lot of information from different sources. In the 1980s – 1990s, the investigations of icon-painting were carried out by Novoselskaya E.G. and Vorontsova L.M., they mainly concerned the monuments acquired between the 1950s and early 1990s and the icons of the Lavra collection restored by that time. (Vorontsova L.M. Album-Catalogue “Icons of the Sergiev Posad Museum-Reserve. Recent Acquisitions and Restoration Discoveries". Sergiev-Posad,1996)

In 1983, there was published the album-catalogue of T.N. Manushina “Early Russian Embroidery in the Zagorsk Museum Collection” (M., 1983), for the first time presenting the whole collection of the 15th – 17th century ornamental embroidery with the scientific attribution based on the Monastery Donation Books and Inventories. 

Since the late 1970s, they constantly published the results of the investigation of the Monastery documents, ancient manuscripts, books in the works of E.N. Klitina, T.A. Popesky, B.M. Kloss, S.V. Nikolayeva, L.A. Kirichenko. The great event in national history was the edition “Vkladnaya kniga Troitse-Sergieva Monastyrya XVII veka” (M., 1987) [the Donation Book of the Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery]. It is a unique source of the 17th century, providing information on the Monastery art collection and medieval culture of North-Eastern Rus. 

S. V. Nikolaeva and L. A. Kirichenko published " Kormovaya kniga Troitse-Sergieva  monastyrya 1674 goda. Issledovaniye i publikatsiya.” [The Memorial Book of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery of  1674.  Research and Publication.] (M., 2008.)

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The catalogue of Spirina L.M. “Knigi kirillicheskoi pechati XVI – XVIII vv. Zagorskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika” (M., 1981) {The 16th – 18th century Books in Cyrillic” is of great interest for specialists. In the museum practice it was nearly the only case of such investigation of tSince the late 1970s, after a long break, they resumed the investigation of the collections of Russian art of the 18th – early 20th century.

The first work was the catalogue of O.A. Adamaitis “Russkaya keramika XVIII – XX vv.” (M., 1976) [Russian Ceramics of the 18th – 20th cc.] presenting a small collection of porcelain, including works of the famous Russian plants. Later that collection was twice enlarged mainly by the items of the second half of the 19th – early 20th century, acquired during expeditions. It was presented by a series of exhibitions and the catalogue “Farfor, fayans. Novye postupleniya 1978 – 1985” (Porcelain. Faience. Recent Acquisitions of 1978 – 1985), written by Zaritskaya O.I. and Shitova L.A. The included tables of trade marks of the porcelain plants were of great value for all porcelain investigators. he collection mainly formed in the 1950s – 1970s, as the result of the examination of churches in the Moscow Region. 

    The scientific classification of the collection of the 18th – early 20th century painted enamels, difficult for attribution, was completed. The results were published by L.A. Shitova in the catalogue “Zhivopisnye emaili v sobranii Zagorskogo museya-zapovednika” [Painted Enamels in the Collection of the Zagorsk Museum-Reserve]. The subsequent works by L.A. Shitova  were conceptual attempts to comprehend the development of  the Trinity Monastery and Rostov  enamel schools and to trace their interrelations. The investigation of  the Russian icons resulted in L.A. Shitova  book “Russian Icons in Precious Frameworks. Late 17th – early 20th century”. Sergiev Posad, 2005 – 224p.; 304  col. ill. (text in Russian and in English).
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  The catalogue of Baranova G.K. “Zoloto-serebryanoye kruzhevo XVII – nachala XX vv. v sobranii Sergievo-Posadskogo muzeya” (M., 1993) [Gold and Silver Lace in the Collection of the Sergiev Posad Museum] reflected a specific Museum collection. The introduction of the collection might inspire further investigations of this rare art. G.P. Cherkashina’s catalogue “Artistic Cast Iron of the 19th – 20th Century” (M., 1998) presented the collection formed by the Museum.

The expeditions, collecting works of folk art and handicrafts organized since 1953, expeditions examining churches, archeological expeditions (since 1980s) insured valuable acquisitions. They organized one or two expeditions an year, which added to the collection from 300 to 600 items.

The research work was reflected in the regular conferences with the first publication of scientific reports. The conferences on different subjects were organized every year. The conferences “The Stone Age of the European Plains” (1997), “The Trinity St. Sergius Lavra in History, Culture and Spiritual Life of Russia” (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014,2016), “Traditional Culture and Orthodoxy” (2003) were internationally recognized. 

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The reports delivered at the conferences were published in the “Soobshcheniya” resumed in the Museum in 1990. There were published “Sergievo-Posadskii istoriko-khudozhestvenny muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya 1995” (M., 1995), “Russkoye narodnoye iskusstvo. Soobshcheniya 1996” (M., 1998),“Trudy po istorii Troitse-Sergievoi Lavry” (M., 1998), “Sergievo-Posadskii istoriko-khudozhestvenny muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya (2000, 2005, 2010, 2015).  Between 1991 and 1999 over 30 works were published by different scientific research institutions.

     Among recent publications there were catalogues of temporary exhibitions, including international projects, organized within and outside the Museum. Between 1991 and 1999 twelve catalogues were published. Among them “The Venerable Sergius of Radonezh in Works of Russian Art of the 15th – 19th Century” (M., 1992), “Sokrovishcha muzeyev Podmoskovjya” [“Treasures of the Moscow Region Museum”] (M., 1996), “Icons and Manuscripts from the Heart of Russia” (Holland – Utrekht, 1999), “ Sovremenny khudozhestvenny metall i kamen” [“Contemporary Artistic Metal and Stone”] (Sergiev Posad, 1996), etc. 

 The mutual exhibition projects with serious scientific catalogues were developing. The most significant were :"The Treasures of the Moscow Region Museums" (1996, Moscow – State Tretyakov Gallery); "Glamour of the Russian Court" (1999, Italy – Turin) in co-operation with the Museum-Reserves "Tsarskoye Selo" and "Pavlovsk"; @Icons and Manuscripts from the Heart of Russia"(1999, Holland – Utrekht) in co-operation with the State History Museum and the Museum named after Andrei Rublev; “The Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra and Russian Tsars: Relics and Art Treasures” (2002, Moscow – the State History and Culture Museum-Reserve “Moscow Kremlin”), “St. Sergius of Radonezh – a Great Devotee of the Russian Land” (2004, Military History Museum-Reserve “Kulikovo Pole" (Kulikovo Field”). 


The results of the investigation of Sergiev Posad and its environs are the books written by K.A. Filimonov (with participation of the Museum research workers V.A. Tkachenko and S.V. Gorozhanina): “Sergiev Posad” (1998, 2002) and “Khotkovo” (2002, 2004), republished several times, and a series of booklets, including: L.M. Spirina “Pokrovsky monastyr v Khotkove” [“The Intercession Monastery in Khotkovo” ] (Sergiev Posad, 1996), N.V. Khrunova “Spaso-Vifansky monastyr” [“The Saviour and Bethany Monastery”]. (Sergiev Posad, 1997), T.Yu. Tokareva “Prikhodskiye tserkvi Sergieva Posada” [“The Community Churches of Sergiev Posad” ](Sergiev Posad, 1997), K.A. Filimonov “New Gethsemane” (M., 2000). In 2007 was published the album “Vozvrazshcheniye k vere. Khramy Sergievo-Posadskogo raiona” [Return to Faith. The Cathedrals of the Sergiev Posad District” (M., 2007), written by K.A. Filimonov and other Museum workers. 

 Guide-books and booklets, illustrating the Museum or separate expositions and displays, present a considerable part of the Museum publications, which are just a part of the scientific research. The results of the investigations are constantly reflected in the system of the expositions and displays. Since the first years the scientific research has been the basis for the development of the Sergiev Posad Museum. Its quality permits any forms of the Museum activity.

The Museum collected reports (“Sergievo-Posadsky istoriko-khudozhestvenny musei-zapovednik. Soobtscheniya 2010” (Sergiev Posad, 2010) were published for the 90th and 95th Museum anniversary.

The  major exhibition projects, carried out in co-operation with Russian and foreign  museums, were “Holy Russia” (Moscow, the State Tretyakov Gallery – 2011, St. Petersburg, the State Russian Museum – 2012), “Andrei Rublev. The Feat of  Icon-Painting. For the 650th anniversary of the artist” (Moscow, the State Tretyakov Gallery – 2010 – 2011), “Russians and Germans: 1000 Years of Art and Culture” (Moscow, the State History Museum – 2012), “The Reverse Perspective, the 19th – 20th Century Figural World of Eastern and Western Christianity” (Suzdal, 2013), “And the Candle Did Not Fade Away… For the 700th Anniversary of St. Sergius” (Sergiev Posad, 2014).

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In 2014, the Museum celebrated the 700th anniversary of Venerable Sergius of Radonezh. The commemorative exhibition called “And the Candle Did Not Fade Away…” for the first time combined works of the 15th – early 21st century art, dedicated to St. Sergius, from 11 museums of the Russian Federation. The Museum research workers prepared four publications, among them the album-catalogue  “Prepodobny Sergy Radonezhsky. Obraz prostoty, pravdy, svyatosti. Ikonographiya XV – XX veka” [ “St. Sergius of Radonezh. The Image  of  Simplicity, Truth and Sainthood. The 15th -20th century Iconography”]. M.: Leto Publ., 2014.

 In 2017, the Museum organized the exhibition “The Pathos and Symbols of the Epoch”, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution.

1. Sb. Dokladov I statei na konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya V.I. Lenina. – Zagorsk, 1970.
2. Yubileinyi vypusk gazety “Vpered” k 70-letiyu muzeya. 1990, N 55 (11900). The authors: G.V. Chekhomova, T.N. Manushina, L.M. Spirina, A.A. Pavlovskaya, E.V. Kutsenko, L.A. Shitova, V.M. Zhiguleva, L.E. Kalmykova,, S.V. Gorozhanina.
3. E.S. Smirnova. K 7o-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. Soobshcheniya Zagorskogo muzeya-zapovednika. – M.: Nauka, 1900. – PP. 3 – 6.
4. T.N. Manushina. K 75-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. (Sergievo-Posadskii muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya. 1995. – PP. 5 – 9.
5. T.N. Manushina. K 80-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. (Sergievo-Posadskii muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya 2000. - M.: Podkova, 2000. – PP. 3 – 14.
6. T.N. Manushina. K 85-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. (Sergievo-Posadskii muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya 2005. – M.: Indrik, Indrik, 2006. – PP. 5 – 9.
7. T.N. Manushina. K 90-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. (Sergievo-Posadskii muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya 2010. – Sergiev Posad, 2010. – PP. 3 – 6. 
8. T.N. Manushina. K 95-letiyu Sergievo-Posadskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya-zapovednika. (Sergievo-Posadskii muzei-zapovednik. Soobshcheniya 2015. – M.: Sergiev Posad, 2015. – PP. 5 – 9. 
9. M.S. Trubacheva. Komissiya po okhrane pamyatnikov stariny i iskusstva Troitse-Sergievoi Lavry 1918 – 1925. Muzei-5. M.: Sovetsky khudoshnik, 1984. – PP. 152 – 164.